Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free Essays on Harriett Jacobs

In today’s society no human being can ever imagine the pain, loneliness, anguish, and complete agony, that black women encountered during slavery. These women endured this pain their whole lives, there only joy and since of pride came from there children and families, who were ripped away from them and sold, never to be seen or heard from again. In the book, Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl, Linda Brent tells a breathtaking story of how her twenty years was spent in slavery with her master Dr. Flint. She speaks of her negative situations and how she overcame them. She takes you into the depths of slavery and shows you how slavery really was. She tells you the love and pain of being an unmarried slave mother. At around the age of twenty or so, Linda escapes and ends up in very small garret only nine foot long and seven foot wide. She lived in this hole with not even a crack of light, no clean air, and hardly ever moved for close to seven years. She finally was able to escape and make it to the North. She and her children lived a much better life and most importantly they all lived free. In the book Linda has mixed feelings about her children because like any mother she so dearly loves them. She doesn’t want them to go through the same things that she has so she wants them to die, but since she loves them so much she doesn’t want to become like other slave mothers by losing her children. How torn and powerless she must have felt as a slave mother. Linda also speaks of "The Slaves New Year’s Day", this was the time that slaves everywhere were sold and leased. Many mothers were torn from their husbands and their children. Linda speaks of one woman she witnessed, "I saw a mother lead seven children to the auction-block. She knew that some of them would be taken from her; but they took all . . . (The woman screamed) Gone! All gone! Why doesn’t God kill me?" Linda explains that things like this happen daily, even hourly. Lindaï ¿ ½... Free Essays on Harriett Jacobs Free Essays on Harriett Jacobs In today’s society no human being can ever imagine the pain, loneliness, anguish, and complete agony, that black women encountered during slavery. These women endured this pain their whole lives, there only joy and since of pride came from there children and families, who were ripped away from them and sold, never to be seen or heard from again. In the book, Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl, Linda Brent tells a breathtaking story of how her twenty years was spent in slavery with her master Dr. Flint. She speaks of her negative situations and how she overcame them. She takes you into the depths of slavery and shows you how slavery really was. She tells you the love and pain of being an unmarried slave mother. At around the age of twenty or so, Linda escapes and ends up in very small garret only nine foot long and seven foot wide. She lived in this hole with not even a crack of light, no clean air, and hardly ever moved for close to seven years. She finally was able to escape and make it to the North. She and her children lived a much better life and most importantly they all lived free. In the book Linda has mixed feelings about her children because like any mother she so dearly loves them. She doesn’t want them to go through the same things that she has so she wants them to die, but since she loves them so much she doesn’t want to become like other slave mothers by losing her children. How torn and powerless she must have felt as a slave mother. Linda also speaks of "The Slaves New Year’s Day", this was the time that slaves everywhere were sold and leased. Many mothers were torn from their husbands and their children. Linda speaks of one woman she witnessed, "I saw a mother lead seven children to the auction-block. She knew that some of them would be taken from her; but they took all . . . (The woman screamed) Gone! All gone! Why doesn’t God kill me?" Linda explains that things like this happen daily, even hourly. Lindaï ¿ ½...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Benjamen Harrison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Benjamen Harrison - Essay Example In 1748, he married his cousin Elizabeth Bassett, a niece of George Washington's wife Martha. He had many children eight of whom survived infancy. After a while, he was successful in expanding his plantations to include eight more and also in shipping and ship building. He was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1764. As was the tradition, he sat in the House of Burgesses frequently as a speaker from 1749 till 1774 when the Royal Governor dissolved the organization. His involvement in politics started from there. In time, he became aware of the strained relationships between the Great Britain and the U.S.A and was in support of independence from Britain. Benjamin Rush once remarked that Benjamin Harrison "had strong state prejudices and was hostile to the leading men from the New England states." Hence, became a renowned leader during the American Revolution which started in 1775 and ended in 1783. Harrison was greatly against the Stamp Act and thus, assisted in composing the Colony's objection. When the House disregarded the Royal Governor and approved the Stamp Act Resolution, the Royal Governor attempted to bribe Harrison with a promise of a seat to the executive council when he saw the amount of influence Harrison had as a political leader. However, Harrison rejected the proposition instead declaring loyalty to the principles of the republic and people's rights even at his young age of 38. Also, he contradicted the resolutions of Patrick Henry by suggesting civil waywardness as a response. Moreover, in 1772 he supported the statement that the import of slaves should be restricted and taxed in great amounts. Presumably his choice to be with the colonists came from his experience on the Property and Grievances Committee and the Trade Committee. He got elected as the First Continental Congress in 1774 and was one of those who were obliged to attend General Washington in Cambridge to help make plans for the future of the American Army the next year. He chose to represent his state from then on in every session whenever he was a member of the Congress. During the war, he heeded affairs at home in the position attending as a lieutenant in his county's armed force and was also a chief magistrate as well. As the falling-out with the British Crown increased, Harrison was compelled to object and cast his group with the patriots. Between 1773 and 1776, he took part in carrying out the responsibilities of the Revolutionary conventions, the committee of correspondence, and the provincial congresses. He controlled the discussions on the Articles of Association and signed them on 20th October, 1774. He made effective contributions on the foreign affairs, groups of military, finance and marine. As the Chairman of the Whole from March 1776 to August, Benjamin Harrison was vastly respected in Congress; he led the negotiations till the approval of the Declaration and early arguments on the planned Articles of Confederation. When in Congress, Benjamin Harrison sought financial and added assistance from other countries being a member of the Secret Correspondence Committee. On the significant day of 7th June, 1776, Harrison was selected to introduce his fellow Virginian Richard Henry Lee; his resolutions called for independence from England. He was also

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Why is language a cultural resource and Should provisions be made for Essay

Why is language a cultural resource and Should provisions be made for the support of lesser used and indigenous languages in th - Essay Example For an ethnic group, it forms part of the way meanings are constructed and contexts are created, facilitating social relations. It is, hence, easy to understand why ethnic groups cling to their languages with such fervor even when living in a foreign society – language is part of their cultural identity. The dynamics of this fact is illustrated in the way bilingualism persists among Americans. Latinos, Asians and other ethnic minorities speak at least two languages. Collectively, they represent a sizable portion of the American population. In education, this issue is important because, until only recently, the erstwhile government policy on language is â€Å"English only.† The government reduced support for bilingual programs in education, effectively reducing bilingual teachers in the process. According to Katz (2004), if this policy will continue, it will seriously affect the chances of the children of the 47 million non-native English speakers today and in the future . Teachers who understand the language requirements of students would be scarce and students study in â€Å"sink-or-swim† mainstream English classes, effectively compromising the attainment of academic proficiency.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

How Accurate Is Eyewitness Testimony Essay Example for Free

How Accurate Is Eyewitness Testimony Essay The bedrock of the American judicial process is the honesty of witnesses in trial. Eyewitness testimony can make a deep impression on a jury, which is often exclusively assigned the role of sorting out credibility issues and making judgments about the truth of witness statements. In the U. S. , there is the possibility of over 5,000 wrongful convictions each year because of mistaken eyewitness identifications. The continuous flow of media stories that tell of innocent people being incarcerated should serve as a signal to us that the human identification process is rife with a large number of error risks. These risks have been largely supported by research. Unfortunately, a jury rarely hears of the risks; therefore, eyewitness testimony remains a much-used and much-trusted process by those who are uninformed many times, lawfully uninformed. In cases in which eyewitness testimony is used, more often than not, an expert will not be allowed to testify to the faults of eyewitness identification. Thus, the uninformed stay blissfully ignorant of the inherent risks involved in eyewitness identification testimony. Too often, these blissfully ignorant people make up a jury of our peers. (McAtlin, 1999). According to McAtlin, there are three parts of an eyewitness testimony: (1) Witnessing a crime – as a victim or a bystander – involves watching the event while it is happening. (2) The witness must memorize the details of the occurrence. (3) The witness must be able to accurately recall and communicate what he or she saw. Studies of wrongful conviction cases have concluded that erroneous eyewitness identifications are by far the leading cause of convicting the innocent. Several studies have been conducted on human memory and on subjects’ propensity to remember erroneously events and details that did not occur. When human beings try to acquire, retain and retrieve information with any clarity, suppositional influences and common human failures profoundly limit them. The law can regulate some of these human limitations others are unavoidable. The unavoidable ones can make eyewitness testimony devastating in the courtroom and can lead to wrongful convictions. Unfortunately, memories are not indelibly stamped onto a brain video cassette tape. An event stored in the human memory undergoes constant change. Some details may be altered when new or different information about the event is added to the existing memory. Some details are simply forgotten and normal memory loss occurs continually. Even so, witnesses often become more confident in the correctness of their memories over time. The original memory has faded and has been replaced with new information. This new information has replaced the original memory because the natural process of memory deterioration has persisted. Furthermore, individual eyewitnesses vary widely in infallibility and reasoning. . (McAtlin, 1999). Studies of wrongful conviction cases have concluded that erroneous eyewitness identifications are by far the leading cause of convicting the innocent. For example, the Innocence Project of Cardozo School of Law reports that of the first 130 exonerations, 101 (or 77. 8 percent) involved mistaken identifications. But exactly how often eyewitnesses make tragic mistakes that lead to the punishment of innocent persons is unknown and probably unknowable. One of the infamous cases where mistaken identity led to the wrongful conviction and execution was Gary Graham. Grahams case received widespread attention, in part because of substantial evidence indicating that he was innocent of the murder charge, and the indisputable fact that his court-appointed trial lawyer failed to mount a serious legal defense. Graham was convicted of killing grocery store clerk Bobby Lambert on May 13, 1981 during a robbery attempt. Graham was 17 years old at the time. There was no physical evidence linking him to the crime and only one eyewitness who identified him as the murderer. Eyewitnesses who told police investigators Graham was not the killer were never called to testify at trial by Grahams lawyer. Constitutional Protections In Neil v. Biggers, the U. S. Supreme Court established criteria that jurors may use to evaluate the reliability of eyewitness identifications. The Biggers Court enumerated several factors to determine if a suggestive identification is reliable: (1) the witness’s opportunity to view the suspect; (2) the witness’s degree of attention; (3) the accuracy of description; (4) the witness’s level of certainty; and (5) the time between incident and confrontation, i. . , identification. Courts today continue to allow into evidence suggestive identification testimony. Currently, courts consider the admissibility of identification testimony under a Fourteenth Amendment procedural due process analysis. If a court determines that a pretrial identification was unnecessarily suggestive, it then ascertains whether the suggestive procedure gave rise to a substantial likelihood of irreparable misidentification. A court will find a substantial likelihood of irreparable misidentification only if the identification is found to be unreliable. Therefore, even if the court concludes that a police identification procedure was suggestive, it may be admissible if the court finds that the identification is nevertheless likely to be accurate. A court will balance the suggestiveness of the identification procedure against the likelihood that the identification is correct, resulting in an unprincipled rule of law that turns on the court’s subjective assessment of the defendant’s guilt. Issues That Impact an Individuals Testimony A specific look at how memory functions and how suggestion operates llustrates why participation in unregulated lineups creates unreasonable risks of misidentification. Identification procedures differ from other police investigatory procedures in that they solely rely on human memory. Human memory consists of three basic systems: (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3) retrieval. â€Å"Encoding† is the initial processing of an event that results in a memory. â€Å"Storage† is the re tention of the encoded information. â€Å"Retrieval† is the recovery of the stored information. Errors can occur at each step. Contrary to common understanding of memory, not everything that registers in the central nervous system is permanently stored in the mind and particular details become increasingly inaccessible over time. According to Loftus and Ketchum, â€Å"Truth and reality, when seen through the filters of our memories, are not objective facts but subjective, interpretive realities. † Because these processes are unconscious, individuals generally perceive their memories as completely accurate and their reporting of what they remember as entirely truthful, no matter how distorted or inaccurate they, in fact, may be. An individual’s memories become distorted even in the absence of external suggestion or internal personal distress. Naturally, people tailor their telling of events to the listener and the context. (Loftus Ketchum 1991). Many conditions such as fear, lighting, distance from the event, surprise, and personal biases all affect memory and recall. Human memory is indeed delicate, especially regarding victims and witnesses of crimes. Fear and traumatic events may impair the initial acquisition of the memory itself. At the time of an identification, the witness is often in a distressed emotional state. Many victims and witnesses experience substantial shock because of their traumatic experiences that continue to affect them at the time of identification procedures. In a particular case in court, the psychologist can determine the reliability of the evidence of a particular witness and enable the judge and the jury to put the proper value on such witnesss testimony. For example, a witness may swear to a certain point involving the estimation of time and distance. The psychologist can measure the witnesss accuracy in such estimates, often showing that what the witness claims to be able to do is an impossibility. A case may hinge on whether an interval of time was ten minutes or twelve minutes, or whether a distance was three hundred or four hundred feet. A witness may swear positively to one or both of these points. The psychologist can show the court the limitations of the witness in making such estimates. Overview of Psychology and Law The service of psychology to law can be very great, but owing to the necessary conservatism of the courts, it will be a long time before they will make much use of psychological knowledge. Perhaps the greatest service will be in determining the credibility of evidence. Psychology can now give the general principles in this matter. Witnesses go on the stand and swear to all sorts of things as to what they heard and saw and did, often months and even years previously. The expert clinical psychologist can tell the court the probability of such evidence being true. Experiments have shown that there is a large percentage of error in such evidence. The additional value that comes from the oath has been measured. The oath increases the liability of truth only a small percentage. Psychologists sometimes provide expert testimony in the form of general testimony where theory and research is described and applied to a problem before the court. The expert would not provide opinions about any party involved in the case before the court, but might give opinions about substantive research that is relevant to the issues. Role of Psychology Professional in Forensic Matters Clinical-forensic psychologists are employed in a variety of settings including state forensic hospitals, court clinics, mental health centers, jails, prisons, and juvenile treatment centers. Clinical-forensic psychologists are perhaps best known for their assessment of persons involved with the legal system. Because of their knowledge of human behavior, abnormal psychology, and psychological assessment, psychologists are sometimes asked by the courts to evaluate a person and provide the court with an expert opinion, either in the form of a report or testimony. For example, clinical-forensic psychologists frequently evaluate adult criminal defendants or children involved in the juvenile justice system, offering the court information that might be relevant to determining (1) whether the defendant has a mental disorder that prevents him or her from going to trial, (2) what the defendants mental state may have been like at the time of the criminal offense, or (3) what treatment might be indicated for a particular defendant who has been convicted of a crime or juvenile offense. Increasingly, clinical-forensic psychologists are being called upon to evaluate defendants who have gone to trial and who have been found guilty and for whom one of the sentencing options is the death penalty. In this case, psychologists are asked to evaluate the mitigating circumstances of the case and to testify about these as they relate to the particular defendant. Clinical-forensic psychologists also evaluate persons in civil (i. e. , non-criminal) cases. These psychologists may evaluate persons who are undergoing guardianship proceedings, to assist the court in determining whether the person has a mental disorder that affects his or her ability to make important life decisions (e. g. , managing money, making health care decisions, making legal decisions). Clinical-forensic psychologists also evaluate persons who are plaintiffs in lawsuits, who allege that they were emotionally harmed as a result of someones wrongdoing or negligence. Clinical-forensic psychologists may evaluate children and their parents in cases of divorce, when parents cannot agree about the custody of their children and what is best for them. Clinical-forensic psychologists are sometimes called on to evaluate children to determine whether they have been abused or neglected and the effects of such abuse or neglect, and offer the court recommendations regarding the placement of such children. In addition to forensic assessment, clinical-forensic psychologists are also involved in treating persons who are involved with the legal system in some capacity. Jails, prisons, and juvenile facilities employ clinical psychologists to assess and treat adults and juveniles who are either awaiting trial, or who have been adjudicated and are serving a sentence of some type. Treatment in these settings is focused both on mental disorders and providing these persons with skills and behaviors that will decrease the likelihood that they will re-offend in the future. Clinical-forensic psychologists employed in mental health centers or in private practice may also treat persons involved in the legal system, providing either general or specialized treatment (e. g. treatment of sex offenders, treatment of violent or abusive persons, and treatment of abuse victims). Conclusion Studies confirm that unregulated eyewitness testimony is often â€Å"hopelessly unreliable. † Misidentifications are the greatest single source of wrongful convictions in the United States. Yet courts’ current due process analyses are unsuccessful in ensuring fair procedures and preventing wrongful convictions. A due process analysis alone is inadequate, in part because a due process analysis is essentially a fairness inquiry, and courts regard it as unfair to exclude a correct, yet suggestive identification, from evidence.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Global Ethical Perspective of Peer-to-peer File-sharing Essay

The Global Ethical Perspective of Peer-to-peer File-sharing Introduction This paper is an analytical essay on global ethical issues on peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing. A history and background of peer-to-peer file-sharing will be given, as well as how it became an issue. This paper will explore what aspects of file-sharing are ethical and at what point it becomes unethical. An explanation of the laws will be described and whether the laws different from region-to-region around the world. The paper will include personal experiences with file sharing, as well as an in-depth analysis on the topic with high-quality industry and academic references to defend a particular moral/ethical position. Background The Internet is a shared resource, a cooperative network built out of millions of hosts all over the world. In the year 2000, the network model that survived the enormous growth of the previous five years had been turned on its head. Through the music-sharing application called Napster, and the larger movement dubbed â€Å"peer-to-peer,† the millions of users connecting to the Internet began connecting to each other directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engineers, virtual supercomputers, and file systems. The original Internet was fundamentally designed as a peer-to-peer system. Over time it became increasingly client/server, with millions of consumer clients communicating with a relatively privileged set of servers. Current peer-to-peer applications are using the Internet much as it was originally designed: as a medium for communication for machines that share resources with each other as equals. The Internet was originally conceived in the late 1960s as a peer-to-peer system. The goal of ... ...erspace: Dealing with Law Enforcement and the Courts. November 1999 in Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM SIGUCCS conference on User services: Mile High expectations. [8] D. K. Mulligan, J. Han, A. J. Burstein: Copyrights and Access-Rights: How DRM-based Content Delivery Systems Disrupt Expectations of †Personal Use†. October 2003 in Proceedings of the 2003 ACM workshop on Digital rights management. [9] D. Clark: Future of intellectual property: How Copyright became controversial. April 2002 in Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy. [10] N. Garnett: Digital Rights Management, Copyright, and Napster. March 2001 in ACM SIGecom Exchanges, Volume 2 Issue 2. [11] J. Evers: File Swapping Fight Goes Global: Recording industry says P-to-P users in Canada and Europe could face legal action. March 30, 2004 in IDG News Service.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Importance of Fungi

Importance of Fungi: Fungi are  eukaryotic  organisms distinct from plants and animals and members of several other smaller kingdoms. Common fungi include mushrooms, conks, corals, jellies, puffballs, stinkhorns, morels, cups, truffles, lichens, yeasts, rusts, smuts, bread molds, mildews, and molds on bathroom tiles. In 1959, R. H. Whittaker introduced a five-kingdom taxonomy that granted fungi equal status with plants and animals. The five-kingdom system has been supplanted by a multiple-kingdom classification, and species traditionally treated as fungi are now distributed across several kingdoms.Those believed to form a  monophyletic lineage  are assigned to kingdom Eumycota (often called kingdom Fungi). Mycology, the science devoted to fungi, still covers all traditional fungi. Fungi are considered as one of the most prolific types of life on earth, which are found nearly everywhere around us. There are many different types of fungi some of which are very beneficial for ma nkind. It has immense economic applications and plays a major role in producing a number of products such as drugs, antibiotics penicillin, contraceptives, food, mushrooms, morels, cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and soybeans.Fungi have a profound biological and economic impact. As decomposers, plant pathogens, and symbiotic partners, their ability to grow anywhere, on anything, makes them both beneficial and harmful recyclers of carbon and nitrogen. Beneficially, they are used as food (mushrooms, truffles) and in baking and brewing (yeasts). They are being developed to detoxify pollutants (soil fungi), control insects (pathogenic Zygomycota), and regulate plant growth (pathogenic Ascomycota).Detrimentally, rusts, smuts, and molds cost billions of dollars through crop disease and spoilage while forest pathogens such as the honey mushroom (  Armillaria ostoyae  ) and root-butt rot (  Heterobasidion annosum  ) similarly threaten the timber industry. Some are toxic when eaten, su ch as the infamous destroying angel (  Amanita phalloides  ). Natural LSD, a hallucinogen produced by ergot (  Claviceps purpurea  ), is associated with medieval hysterical frenzies produced by consumption of infected grain, and the  aflatoxin  produced by  Aspergillus flavus  in improperly stored grain is one of the most potent carcinogens yet discovered.As human and animal pathogens, fungi cause infections that range from the vexing (athlete's foot, yeast infections) to life threatening (histoplasmosis). Fortunately, other fungi (such as  Penicillium  ) have been used to develop modern antibiotics and beneficial  immunosuppressants  . Recycling Fungi, together with bacteria, are responsible for most of the recycling which returns dead material to the soil in a form in which it can be reused. Without fungi, these recycling activities would be seriously reduced. We would effectively be lost under piles many metres thick, of dead plant and animal remains. Food Fungi are also important directly as food for humans. Many mushrooms are edible and different species are cultivated for sale worldwide. While this is a very small proportion of the actual food that we eat, fungi are also widely used in the production of many foods and drinks. These include cheeses, beer and wine, bread, some cakes, and some soya bean products. While a great many wild fungi are edible, it can be difficult to correctly identify them. Some mushrooms are deadly if they are eaten. Fungi with names such as ‘Destroying Angel' and ‘Death Cap' give us some indication that it would not be a terribly good idea to eat them!In some countries, collecting wild mushrooms to eat is a popular activity. It is always wise to be totally sure that what you have collected is edible and not a poisonous look-a-like. Medicines Penicillin, perhaps the most famous of all antibiotic drugs, is derived from a common fungus called Penicillium. Many other fungi also produce antibiotic substances, which are now widely used to control diseases in human and animal populations. The discovery of antibiotics revolutionized health care worldwide. Some fungi which parasitise caterpillars have also been traditionally used as medicines.The Chinese have used a particular caterpillar fungus as a tonic for hundreds of years. Certain chemical compounds isolated from the fungus may prove to be useful treatments for certain types of cancer. A fungus which parasitises Rye crops causes a disease known as Ergot. The fungus can occur on a variety of grasses. It produces small hard structures, known as sclerotia. These sclerotia can cause poisoning in humans and animals which have eaten infected material. However, these same sclerotia are also the source of a powerful and important drug which has uses in childbirth. Food SpoilageIt has already been noted that fungi play a major role in recycling organic material. The fungi which make our bread and jam go moldy are only recycling orga nic matter, even though in this case, we would prefer that it didn't happen! Fungal damage can be responsible for large losses of stored food, particularly food which contains any moisture. Dry grains can usually be stored successfully, but the minute they become damp, moulds are likely to render them inedible. This is obviously a problem where large quantities of food are being produced seasonally and then require storage until they are needed.Types of Fungi Moulds and Yeast . Moulds The cotton-like mass grown on fruits, animal dung, leather goods or bread in a warm and humid climate is known as a mould. E. g. Mucor and Rhizopus . General Structure- †¢They have a network of transparent structures called as hyphae. †¢The entire mass of such threads is called as mycelin. Nutrition – They obtain their food from the substratum on which they grow. Respiration – they acquire aerobic respiration. Reproduction in moulds is both asexual and sexual. †¢Asexual rep roduction in moulds occurs by the method of columella. Sexual reproduction in moulds occurs by the method of conjugation. Yeast Yeast is a one-celled microorganism growing all around us and on us. It grows when it has food and water, and suspends growth when it does not. In suspended animation, it is light enough to be blown by the wind, like a seed. If there is water and food where it lands, it will reproduce and continue the cycle. It is also on human skin and can be transferred to food through contact, with clean or dirty hands. Yeast has been exploited by humans for thousands  to make bread, beer and wine. It does so by turning sugar into alcohol and gas to gain energy.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Unit 8 Writing Assignment Essay - 1075 Words

Running head: UNIT 8 WRITING ASSIGNMENT Unit 8 Writing Assignment Delphine Turner Kaplan University CJ266-02 Professor Clouse October 19, 2010 The legitimacy of the criminal justice system is based largely upon both its effectiveness and its fairness. Its effectiveness is judged by its ability to investigate and detect crime, identify offenders and mete out the appropriate sanctions to those who have been convicted of offences. Its fairness is judged by its thoroughness and the efforts it makes to redress the resource imbalance between the accused and the state at the investigatory, pre-trial, trial and appellate stages. The system does this by providing evidentiary protection and effective legal representation at all points.†¦show more content†¦Academic studies in the United States indicate that between one-half and 1% of persons convicted of serious offences did not commit the crime. It has also been suggested by the Criminal Justice Research Centre that as many as 6,000 persons a year are wrongfully convicted of felonies in the United States. There are no similar estimates of the number of wrongful convictions in Canada. An official with the Department of Justice recently estimated that the Department receives about 30 applications a year for the review of criminal convictions. The causes of wrongful convictions are easy to identify: irregularities and incompetence at the investigatory, pre-trial, trial and appellate stages of the criminal justice system. More particularly, Kaiser identifies the following contributory factors, among others: false accusations, misleading police investigative work, inept defense counsel, misperceptions by Crown prosecutors of their role, factual assumption of an accuser’s guilt by actors in the criminal justice system, community pressure for a conviction, inadequate identification evidence, perjury, false confessions, inadequate or misinterpreted forensic evidence, judicial bias, poor presentation of an appellate case, and difficulty in having fresh evidence admitted at the appellate stage. Each instance of determined wrongful conviction illustrates a different combination of failures in the criminal justice system that hasShow MoreRelatedUnit 8 Writing Assignment6944 Words   |  28 PagesWriting Assignments Considerations for Writing Assignments Types of Writing Assignments Freshman Rhetoric courses require at least 30 pages of writing that the instructor reads and responds to, and that counts towards the student’s final grade in some way. Because this is a writing course, students should be engaged in writing in some form throughout the entire course. The following list describes the major forms of writing that instructors assign. 1. Essays (out-of-class papers). InstructorsRead MoreDocx949 Words   |  4 PagesInternational University – HCMC Department of English IE2 READING WRITING 1. Course Statistics : 120 periods (8 credits) Number of instruction weeks : 10 Number of sessions : 30 Number of sessions per week :3 Number of periods per session 2. 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