Saturday, December 28, 2019
Offreds Narrative - What is the purpose and function of the Historical Notes and how do they assist your interpretation of the novel? The historical notes are not part of OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative, they are a transcript of a symposium held at a university in 2195 Ã¢â¬â two hundred years from where we left the end of OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s harrowing tale. The purpose of these notes if any, is to put OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative into a historical purpose to help these academics understand the life of Gilead. It seems to me that another purpose of these historical notes is to provoke a very strong reaction in the readers who have followed the emotional journey with the narrator Offred. The significance of the university name Ã¢â¬ËDenay, NunavitÃ¢â¬â¢ is that AtwoodÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦All of this is now being analysed and retold by those who made her feel so powerless in the first place. This section of the novel can also be functioned to create a light mockery towards the current academic practice and language, the male perspective used here is typical of the historical male dominance and perspective in academic research who also completely miss the point, like Pieixto with OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative. I believe that the readers who have just finished agonising with Offred through her tormented times to suddenly come across the Historical Notes will find themselves offended and shocked, as I am convinced Atwood means it to be allowing another purpose for the historical notes, to hear OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic life discussed in front of an amused audience of academics who joke about it as if it was an unusual memento. At the beginning of his speech we learn it was a man called Professor Wade who gave the title of OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬ËThe HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s TaleÃ¢â¬â¢ partly in homage to the great Geoffrey Chaucer who had wrote the Canterbury tales between 1380 and 1400. This is significant because he only had two female characters and one of those characters was the Wife of Bath whoÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue argues the importance of female experience over male authority, the significance of OffredÃ¢â¬â¢s experience is invalidated by the power of the male authority in 2195 plus
Posted by Unknown at 10:51 AM
Friday, December 20, 2019
Government Involvement in Obesity It is evident today in society that obesity levels have increased throughout the years. According to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, more than two out of three adults are considered to be overweight or obese, and one-third of children from ages six to nineteen are considered to be overweight or obese (Ã¢â¬Å"Overweight and Obesity StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). This is a dramatic increase since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, almost doubled. There is not enough awareness in the United States on the issue. We are one of the most overweight countries of the world. The government must obtain a more positive and enlightened role in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s obesity levels. Why has the obesity rated doubled in adults and tripled in children since the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s? There is a very simple explanation. Americans are not aware of the severity of the problems with being overweight. The government and media do not emphasize the importance of being healthy and in shape. Obesity has been defined as a culture-bound phenomenon. In the United States, many have just accepted this epidemic to be normal. As the years fly by, we begin to not take notice on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s body weights. This may because the media is starting to portray a new slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"everybody is beautiful- no matter the size and shape.Ã¢â¬ Although this is a very positive message, it allows the public to believe that being overweight is acceptable. In reality, being overweight affects your heath in numerous, horrible ways. Being overweight means youShow MoreRelatedNational Health And Nutrition Examination Survey940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbeneficial to physicians, health care providers, and people in the community. It provides data that can be used to establish prevalence in different categories. It provides evidence and allows for issues to be prioritized. This is extremely important because different nations, states, counties, and cities are able to factors pertinent to their areas. The Un ited States uses the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to gather information about the health and nutritional status fromRead MoreAnalysis Of The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey1764 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPublicly available data from three waves 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used for this analysis. These waves were selected because they correspond to the most recent time periods with available data for public use at the time of this analysis between 2017-2018. NHANES is a repeated, cross-sectional survey with a multi-stage probability sample of non-institutionalized population of the United States.27 Demographic variablesRead MoreA Study Conducted By National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey764 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe study conducted by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) found that the commonness of hypertension among US residents in the year 2003-2004 was 7.3Ã ±0.9%, 32.6Ã ±2.0%, and 66.3Ã ±1.8% in the 18 to 39, 40 to 59, and Ã¢â° ¥60 age groups, respectively and 29.3% overall. Not everyone is aware of hypertension and its risk. There were numerous studies and researches conducted to learn and understand more about hypertension and its connection with obesity, hyperuricemia, eplerenone and otherRead MoreCoffee And Depression : The Fifth Korean National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey Essay700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesCoffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3) Introduction The article Ã¢â¬Å"Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination SurveyÃ¢â¬ was published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2015. The question the authors looked at was whether there was a correlation between coffee consumption and the prevalence of depression among South Korean adults. There had been no previous studies examiningRead MoreMalnutrition : A Common Problem1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNepal Nutrition Section, CHD, DoHS, MoHP. (2004,p.5 ). Malnutrition is a very common problem in children under five years of age in Nepal and is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortalityÃ¢â¬â accounting for more than half of all child deaths. The process of stunting occurs between conception and two years of age, and is an irreversible process. Furthermore, the population of Nepal, especially women and children, are affected by major micronutrient deficiencies. Malnutrition increases theRead MoreEssay about Nutritio n in Public Health 1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNutrition in public health: Objectives: Ensure that students acquire specific knowledge for the analysis of food and nutrition problems in population groups. Identify the causal factors of the state of nutrition in communities. Be able to take part in the planning and programming for prevention and control activities within the field of nutrition in public health. Program: I. Concept of public health: Historical evolution. Population and food. Quality of life and socioeconomic developmentRead MoreGovernment Should Design Effective Child Nutritional And Health Program757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor the government: Government should design effective child nutritional and health program for the community to reduce malnutrition (stunting, underweight and wasting). Above half of the community gets Water from unprotected sources such as dug well, spring river/surface water which results child diarrhea and illness therefore, government should facilitate clean water supply for the community. Women/mothers education should be promoted as it has been proved that it is the key to reduce both chronicRead MoreThe Natural Form Of Vitamin B91478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprocessed more efficiently in the body. Availability of folic acid is estimated to be about twice that of food folate. Folate deficiency has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Neural tube defects are one of the commonest side effects of folate deficiency among women in childbearing age. Other adverse health effects include preterm birth, other congenital anomalies, megaloblastic anemia, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. There are several studies that link folate deficiency to cognitiveRead MoreThe Effects Of Malnutrition On Indi The Facts Essay1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin five deaths in the world. More than half of these deaths could be prevented if children were well nourished . Malnutrition is a serious condition in which the body does not get the right balance of nutrients and calories needed to sustain good health and development. It has two sides - undernutrition and obesity/overweight. Undernutrition arises mainly as a result of inadequate or unbalanced diets, but is also caused by poor nutrient absorption or a loss of nutrients due to illness (2000, SmithRead MoreEssay On Clinical Data746 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUniversity of Washington reduces them to six categories: Electronic health records: This type of clinical data resides generally at the point of care such as a hospital or office clinic. Best known as the Electronic Health Record Ã¢â¬Å"EHRÃ¢â¬ , and opened to healthcare providers, it has a restricted access to researchers. These data come in part from verbal patient interviews and take the form of narrative inserted in the EHR. The electronic health record contains almost all data regarding a patient visit or encounter
Posted by Unknown at 6:39 AM
Thursday, December 12, 2019
So in order to keep up ratings shows were forced to show what people wanted to see. As our country has slowly let go of morals and standards, its people have been forced to adapt. Reality television has been forced to diminish all possibilities for ever being labeled as moral. It has taken a direction for the worse and shows today lack little meaning or value. In its most current state, television shows force its younger viewers to grow up faster, making younger and younger kids do adult things. These reality shows exemplify things such as sex, drugs, violence, and self-harm. Television producers these days simply have no problem exposing the youth to this rubbish. In fact, the producers are specifically targeting the youth with their unmoral and controversial shows. They often reward the rebel characters with extra TV time or book them for another reality show, while the moral and respectable characters are made out to be boring and hardly ever get rewarded. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lasting Impresion of Reality Tv and Its Lack of Moral or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page America keeps asking what is making each generation less and less moral, but they fail to recognize what kinds of examples are being set. Children have not become more influential, they simply have been influenced by worse things. In the past few years, there has been a major change to reality television that diminishes its moral teaching reputation. From music videos of half naked women to reality shows full of betrayal, lies, and more vulgar than most can handle, the state of American television is in trouble. So where can you turn to when you want to avoid these unmoral shows and watch something good for a change? Well there is no clear-cut answer. Sadly, even some of the biggest networks such as CBS and NBC have started targeting the young crowd with shows that are completely inappropriate. The only solution to this problem is to simply search around a bit to find the perfect show for you. Use sites such as TVguide. com and Amazon. com to check out some reviews and customers opinions on the show before you start getting into it..
Posted by Unknown at 3:10 AM
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Objective Structured Clinical Examination Method. Answer: Introduction: Mr. Harry Jones is 68-year-old man and is admitted to the medical ward suffering from Rapid Atrial Fibrillation. He has allergy with penicillin , and has a past medical history of asthma and hypertension. Mr. Jones is currently on Salbutamol 5mg two puffs four times per day and, oral cardiprin 100mg once a day and oral enalapril 10mg daily. He has a known family history of acute myocardial infarction, migraines in mother , and cancer of the colon in his father.This report includes pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation, and the rationale of administrating amiodarone as his initial medical management, and action and the therapeutic benefits of both the drugs warfarin and dabigatran as well as the side effects to decide which drug most suitable for him. Mr. Jones was prescribed aspirin to prevent the heart stroke, which can occur due atrial fibrillation since he has an age of 68 years. This drug was given because of low risk of bleeding, easy to use and monitoring is not required while giving this drug(Lip, 2013).The Mode of action of aspirin involves inhibiting the activation and aggregation of platelets and also the inhibition of enzyme cyclo xygenase that is platelet dependent. This leads to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. The side effects of aspirin involves fever that lasts for 3 days, vomiting, pain in the stomach and nausea. Cardiprin is used for thinning of blood during heart strokes and atrial fibrillation. It has an active ingredient as aspirin and functions by the suppression of the production of prostaglandins hormones. There are various side effects of Cardiprin such as nausea, vomiting(Ng Ho, 2017). Asthma and problems related to digestion. Nursing interventions for administering Cardiprin involves proper knowledge about the current medicaments the patient is taking, allergic responses and any future surgery and pregnancy. The patient should inform the doctor about any issues of asthma, high blood pressure, heartburn or any other cardiac diseases. The nurse should give the medicine to the patient by checking on the outer packaging and as prescribed by the clinician. It can also lead to irritation in the stomach so it should be taken along with milk. The pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation involves pathological changes such as fibrosis in the artria that is progressive in nature. The fibrosis occurs due to the ageing process, dilation of the chamber, genetic reasons and inflammation. Atria gets dilated due to various structural abnormalities in them heart such as high blood pressure, valvular heart disease or a congestive failure of the heart (Heitner, 2013).Atrial fibrosis can also occur due to the mutation in the lamin AC gene. The renin-aldosterone angiotensin pathway is activated by the atrial dilatation due to stretch and this in turn increases the protein disintegrin and matrix metaproteinase in the walls of the atria. This pathway leads to the release of cytokines, oxidative stress and the formation of factors that lead to growth and promote fibrosis(Wakili, Voigt, Kb, Nattel, 2014). It also initiates various cell-signalling processes that increase the level of calcium inside the cells. The Renin aldosterone angiotensin system (RAAS) includes various enzymes such as Angiotensin 2, aldosterone and angiotensin converting enzyme and they are increased during atrial fibrillation as they are synthesized on a local level in the atrial myocardium. The increase in the level of these enzymes leads to fibrosis and atrial remodeling and results in the loss of muscle mass of atria.There are two types of fibrosis that is Reactive interstitial fibrosis, which helps in the separation of muscle bundles, and Reparative fibrosis that helps in replacing the cardiomyocytes. Fibroblasts can be coupled to the cardiomyocytes in an electrical manner and help in promoting the ectopic activities when their number is increased(Dan Camm, 2013). Amiadarone is given to Mr Jones to prevent myocardial infarction since his mother had a past medical history of the same disease. Amiadarone is also used to help the heart to beat in a normal manner as he is suffering from atrial fibrillation. It may lead to side effects if given to Mr Jones since he is allergic to pencillin and is suffering from asthma and serious heart issues(Barber Blundell, 2013).It should also be not given to patients suffering from thyroid diseases, implantation of pacemaker, eyesight issues, low balance of electrolyte and low or high blood pressure. There are various side effects of amiodarone such that it can have a negative effect on the liver and lungs in Mr Jones. The nursing interventions include various measures after administering this drug to the patient such as continuous monitoring of ECG and rhythm and heart rate and keeping a check if the patient suffers from jaundice, pain in the chest and stomach breathing issues, dark coloured urine and blood i n the cough(Schalij, 2014). Amiodarone should not be given to females who are pregnant as it can have a negative effect on the health of the baby because it passes to the mothers milk. Anticoagulants such as warfarin and dabigatran are used to reduce the risk of blood clotting and hence the heart stroke. The most common medicine is warfarin but it has a disadvantage that it can interact with foods, medicines and alcohol. But dabigatran has an advantage that it has a low interaction rate with medicaments, alcohol and food items .Warfarin requires regular blood tests to check the clotting time of blood in the body and dabigatran does not require regular blood tests(Wislff Klemp, 2014). According to, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), warfarin is used to decrease the risk of heart stroke. Its main disadvantage is heavy bleeding so to avoid it, a Vitamin K injection is given to stop the bleeding. Dabigatran blocks the effect of thrombin and helps in preventing the blood clots. Thrombin is a protein which is formed in the body for the formation of blood clots. Dabigatran gets collected in the blood of the patients who suffer from kidney probl ems as the kidney is not able to remove the drug from the body(Giugliano, Ruff, Braunwald, Murphy, Wiviott, Ruzyllo, 2013). There are various precautions while taking the drug dabigatran such as the capsule should not be opened before giving then dose to the patient that will lead to an increase in the concentration of drug in the body of the patient and hence lead to an increase in the risk of bleeding. Another disadvantage of this drug is that it is degraded when comes in contact with moisture and hence precautionary measures should be followed to keep the bottle closely tight. It should be used within 30 days after the bottle is opened. A side effect of dabigatran is that it leads to indigestion and stomach upset in patients if it is discontinued because the drug needs an acidic environment to get absorbed in the body(Mooney, 2013).It can also lead to heart stroke or heart attack if this medicine is stopped from taking. The side effects of warfarin are fever, bleeding from the gums, pain and swelling, irritation and diarrhea. Warfarin is more effective and safer than dabigatran and dabigatran should no t be taken by patient suffering from kidney and liver problems as it lead to increase in bleeding. Salbutamol is used in the treatment of asthma by providing relaxation to the muscles in the walls of airways present in the lungs. The normal dose for patients is 1-2 inhalations those who are adults and one puff for children in the age group of 6-11 years. It should be used only after prescribed by the doctor. (Salvi, 2013). Mr Jones will be instructed to remove the cover from the mouthpiece and shake the inhaler profusely then hold the inhaler and breathe out in a gentle manner. Then the mouthpiece should be immediately kept on the mouth. He will be advised to seal the mouthpiece totally with lips and start to breathe slowly with the mouth. After breathing slowly, press the inhaler firmly to release the medication and continued to breathe in(Zhang, Liu, Hu, Tan, 2015). If the patient misses the dose he should continue with the regular dosage schedule. It should be store at a room temperature and kept out of reach from children. It should be kept away from hot devices such as stove and heater. The patients who are allergic to salbutamol and milk proteins such as lactose should not take salbutamol puffers. Side effects of this medication include drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, coughing and faster rate of heartbeat(Lahiri, 2017). It can be concluded that Mr Jones has a high risk of heart stroke since he is an elderly person. He should take proper care of himself and follow the medicaments prescribed by his clinician properly. He should take a well balanced diet and exercise daily that will decrease the chances of heart stroke. He should take warfarin that will help to decrease the risk of heart stroke and it is more effective and safer as compared to other drugs such as dabigatran. He should follow proper nursing interventions and follow precautionary measures to recover from Rapid Atrial Fibrillation. Bibliography Barber, Blundell, P. . (2013). Further Esstentials of Pharmocology For Nurses. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education . Dan, Camm, B. d. (2013). Atrial fibrillation therapy. . Giugliano, Ruff, Braunwald, Murphy, Wiviott, Ruzyllo, H. . (2013). Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. New England Journal of Medicine , 369(22), 2093-2104. Heitner, H. . (2013). Cardiology in Family Practice. A practical guide . Lahiri. (2017). vidence behind use of levosalbutamol over salbutamol to prevent cardiac side effects. . International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics , 4(3), 674-678. Lip, . L. (2013). Stroke prevention with oral anticoagulation therapy. Circulation Journal, Volume 77(6), pp1380-1388. . Mooney. (2013). Use of dabigatran to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. .Nursing standard, Volume 27(27), , pp 35-41. Ng, Ho, C. . (2017). Comprehension by older people of medication information with or without supplementary pharmaceutical pictograms. Applied Ergonomics , 58, 167-175. Salvi, B. . (2013). Aspirin and asthma. CHEST Journal Volume118 (5 , p1470-1476.doi:10.1378/chest.118.5.1470. Schalij, V. E. (2014). Amiodarone: an effective antiarrhythmic drug with unusual side effects. Heart, Volume , 96(19). Use of dabigatran to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. (2013). Nursing standard, , Volume 27(27), pp 35-41.41. Van Erven, L., Schalij, M. J. (2010)Amiodarone: an effective antiarrhythmic drug with unusual side effects. . (2013). Heart, Volume 96(19) , 96(19). Wakili, Voigt, Kb, Nattel, D. (2014). Reccent advances in the molecular pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Journal of clinical investigation , p2955-2968. Wislff, Klemp, H. . (2014). conomic evaluation of warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. . Pharmacoeconomics , 32(6), 601-612. Zhang, Liu, Hu, Tan, X. (2015). An aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate for pulmonary inhalation., . Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B , 4(1), 79-85.
Posted by Unknown at 2:52 PM
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Key Facts About Edmonton, the Capital of Alberta Edmonton is the capital city of the province of Alberta, Canada. Sometimes called Canadas Gateway to the North, Edmonton is the farthest north of Canadas large cities and has important road, rail and air transportation links. About Edmonton, Alberta From its beginnings as a Hudsons Bay Company fur trading fort, Edmonton has evolved into a city with a wide range of cultural, sporting and tourist attractions, and is the host of more than two dozen festivals each year. Most of Edmontons population works in the service and trade industries, as well as in the municipal, provincial and federal governments. Location of Edmonton Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River, near the center of the province of Alberta. You can seeÃ more about the city in these maps ofÃ Edmonton. It is the northernmost large city in Canada and, therefore, the northernmost city in North America. Area Edmonton is 685.25 sq. km (264.58 sq. miles), according to Statistics Canada. Population As of the 2016 Census, Edmontons population was 932,546 people, making it the second-largest city in Alberta, after Calgary. It is the fifth-largest city in Canada. More Edmonton City Facts Edmonton was incorporated as a town in 1892 and as a city in 1904. Edmonton became the capital city of Alberta in 1905. Government of City of Edmonton Edmonton municipal elections are held every three years on the third Monday in October. The last Edmonton municipal election was held on Monday, Oct. 17, 2016, when Don Iveson was re-elected as mayor. The city council of Edmonton, Alberta is made up of 13 elected representatives: one mayor and 12 city councilors. Edmonton Economy Edmonton is a hub for the oil and gas industry (hence the name of its National Hockey League team, the Oilers). It is also well-regarded for its research and technology industries. Edmonton Attractions Major attractions in Edmonton include West Edmonton Mall (the largest mall in North America), Fort Edmonton Park, the Alberta Legislature, the Royal Alberta Museum, Devonian Botanic Garden and the Trans Canada Trail. There are also several sports arenas, including Commonwealth Stadium, Clarke Stadium and Rogers Place. Edmonton Weather Edmonton has a fairly dry climate, with warm summers and cold winters. Summers in Edmonton are hot and sunny. Although July is the month with the most rain, showers and thunderstorms are usually short. July and August have the warmest temperatures, with highs around 75 F (24 C). Summer days in June and July in Edmonton bring 17 hours of daylight. Winters in Edmonton are less severe than in many other Canadian cities, with low humidity and less snow. Although the winter temperature can dip to -40 C/F, the cold spells last only a few days and usually come with sunshine. January is the coldest month in Edmonton, and the wind chill can make it feel much colder.
Posted by Unknown at 11:40 AM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Portfolio 02243 - Essay Example Thus, our family have to learn English for meeting the global requirement. However, being the native peoples we were facing the challenges of speaking English correctly. In terms of learning English or other foreign languages like German and Spanish my Mandarin pronunciation got inaccurate and my parents helped me a lot to rectify the languages (Grainger, 2014). My education emphasised on the first language Mandarin which is my native language. I have faced multilingual issues in the Jiangsu are different languages are used by the local peoples. I observed that the maximum peoples of my school are using Mandarin languages, some of them using English, German and Spanish to communicate with the others. From the age of 12, I selected German as my second foreign language. However, I faced intense complexity in learning the foreign language in classrooms. Major I faced problem was the accent of German language. Very less number of peoples was using the language thus I did not have the scope of learning the methods of oral communication. Teachers were just teaching us the methods like paraphrase of Chinese and German, and some basic grammars. I have started to communicate with European classmates to improve my accent of English and German. Discussion helped me to gain insight on various critical incidences and cross cultural traits. The discussion of CT 5 provided me with the details of Mr J and Mr S. From the discussion it is observed that Mr J is working in a foreign country which unfamiliar to him as per the culture and languages. Mr J took the help of the Mr S to understand the culture of the new country. However, it is also observed that the culture of Mr S is empowering the hangouts and spending time with friends and acquaintance. They can interact with the immigrant or the foreign country members very easily and they are very helpful (Beausaert, Segers and Gijselaers, 2011). Culture of the country
Posted by Unknown at 7:18 AM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Team Leadership - Case Study Example Furthermore, the team lacks excellence standards through which individual performance can be assessed. Individual performance should be established at each level in order to identify and correct any wrong doings (Martin 253). With lack of such essential qualities of effective teamwork, it can really be very difficult for the team to attain its goals. Jim should intervene immediately if he wants his team to achieve effectively and with ease its goals. Since his group comprises of individuals with very high expertise, Jim can utilize this opportunity and intervene from within. As an executive leader he should have a clear SWOT analysis of his team in order to approach situations strategically. This will help him to utilize every opportunity/strength the team is exposed to appropriately while avoiding the team weaknesses as well as overcoming the threats. Nevertheless, his intervention should be task oriented even though relational actions may also come into play at times (Martin 254). JimÃ¢â¬â¢s group seems to have no problem with their leader but rather have a problem with what they are expected to do. Jim should define to each individual clearly what he expects of him/her and the exact goal they are expected to achieve. ... Structuring here implies that membersÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths as well as weaknesses needs to be studied in order for each member to be allocated what they can do best. Decision making is also of equal importance in the process of leading, as it facilitates the process of attaining results. Jim should also ensure that standards are maintained at every step through a constant monitoring and evaluation process. A close analysis of the group will enable him to identify any misunderstandings within the group, and rectify them before they become a major problem. Local Cancer Health Team Teamwork is all about proper communication, listening and understanding each other. Without these qualities group effectiveness which plays a critical role in teamwork is not going to be achieved. Team effectiveness aims at ensuring that tasks are accomplished within the stipulated time, as well as maintaining a strong teamwork. This team may actually fail to accomplish their vision due to poor developments withi n the team. Each individual should be accorded respect in what she/he has been allocated in the team and no one should feel superior over the other. Since within this team other members feel that they know more than others, the team is likely to lack cohesiveness as conflicts may arise (Martin 255). In this team problems are arising from both internal tasks and relations since the two exist co-currently. Conflicts resulting from tasks are likely to spread to internal relations where other team members will feel undermined. As much as it is team work, no one should be looked down upon since it is expected that duty allocation is based on specialty. Doctors in this team however are overstepping their mandate to an extent that they are
Posted by Unknown at 8:52 AM
Monday, November 18, 2019
Metaphors on Teens - Essay Example Communicating with your teenager on a regular basis Communication is blinding family with love, care, support, and bringing a parent-teen relationship to harmonious respect. Teens are spending less time talking with their parents and more time with peers, deteriorating and disconnecting their relationship. In this scenario, communication is needed to prevent relationship from being torn. Just as food and air are necessary for human survival, so is communication necessary for the development and sustainment of a relationship. Thus, communication is like a bridge that connects two separate ways into one. Communication is a tool for showing love and interest, resolving conflicts and issues and a means of building close relationships. As supported by Norbeck and Fitzpatrick (125), in a parent and adolescent relationship communication is a commonplace means of understanding. Meanwhile, teens of today are more exposed to negative influences through factors such as technology and peer press ure --destructing powers that increase as time ages. Therefore, teens must be parented properly and should be treated and comforted like a pillow. How to parent your teens with love and compassion Children are highly precious people to their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. ... Ã¢â¬Å"Am I a controlling parent? Do I listen to my child?Ã¢â¬ parents often wonder. Parents, especially those who are autocratic, want their teens to follow every command and rule they impose. However, just as if too much weight is placed on a bridge it will break, so will parents acting too strictly result in cracks in the relationship. Indeed, if parents are too strict in not considering teensÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings, desires and opinions, conflict may arise. Parents must show love and compassion to their teens despite disobedience. Teens want to be loved and cared by parents, and see their parents as their protective shield when it rains. There are many ways parents can show love and compassion to their teens. According to Taylor (2005), parents must teach love and compassion so that teens understand its essence. Second, parents must plan activities that establish compassion and increase love, such as family outings, family prayer and scripture study, and watching movies together etc . Meanwhile, teens might get mistaken, so it is a perfect time for parents to show love and compassion through comforting, teaching teens how to make decisions, and Ã¢â¬Å"encouraging them to rise after having stumbled down.Ã¢â¬ How to parent the stubborn and argumentative teenager through peer pressure At their age, teens are like the ball that keeps on rolling. Peer pressure greatly influences teensÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior as they might apply what they have learned from peers. Some teens are stubborn and very augmentative. Parents of this kind have hard times negotiating with them. According to Thompson (2006) some teens often love to argue and persist in their ideas. They want to be always right, and do the things they want. Parents want the best for them, so generally what they consider is the best and
Posted by Unknown at 12:04 AM
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Success Of The Woman In Black Susan Hills novel The Woman in Black was written in the Gothic tradition. Specifically, she wanted to write a Victorian Ghost story, even though her novel was written in modern times. Stephen Mallatratt, in adapting the novel into a play, wanted to stay within the novels tradition, especially by focusing on terror instead of horror: Darkness is a powerful ally of terror; something glimpsed in a corner is far more frightening than if its fully observed. The play contains many classic Gothic elements, including: Tension, True story, Sounds, Whispers, Bangs, Ghost/Person to get scared, Darkness and a House/lonely place. The Woman in Black is a scary gothic play. Stephen Mallatratt, the playwright, achieves a terrifying effect through writing an effective mise-en-scene. These include the setting, lighting, props, sound, the text and stage directions for actors, these combine and make a nerve shredding experience Stephen Mallatratt also uses lighting effectively, this is seen in (p40) when Kipps takes up the torch and moves outside, fade to black-out on stage this is very daunting as the stage is pitch black you dont know what is going to happen next, this creates a mysterious setting and truly nerve-shredding experience for the audience. In addition, another area the light was used effectively was the scene that when Kipps is looking for Spider in act III. The Woman in Black is in the nursery where it is light however, she is outside the light, yet we see her as a crow-like silhouette, violently flapping in the dark. The use of light plays on the audiences emotions; as we are conditioned to believe black represents evil and light represents good. One of the techniques that the author uses to make the play nerve-shredding is sound. For example, as the noise of the ponys hooves gets louder and louder as if its coming closer, a childs cry rises to a scream of terror which is then choked and drowned. The audience should feel the fear and worry of what was going to happen next. Another example is seen in the play for example when the Market noises fade and foot steps echo (p19) Mallatratt uses this to show the audience that the scene is taking place out side and to give a chilling, eerie affect on the audience. As The lighting dims slightly to give filtered effect through trees. They walk on, which creates an atmosphere to the scene. This includes, a moody and foggy setting, however, Kipps and Mr Daily acts as if they are going into a church, Kipps I take it she is to be buried in the churchyard? discussing about The Woman in Black. The stage props were minimal due to the limited amount of space at the theatre. Therefore, the props that were used had to create maximum effect. These included, a wicker basket, clothes hanging on a rail and chair for the actors to sit on. The wicker basket was used as a prop to illustrate a train carriage, a bed, horse carriage and a desk. The clothes rail was situated up stage and never moved from its position. The purpose of this prop was to illustrate a cloak room. The chair was used by the actors to portray someone sitting on a train. Alternatively, as piece of furniture in a room; for example, a desk chair or an arm chair. In the play Mallatratt only uses three actors. Kipps plays many roles, his main is narrating the story; however, Kipps also plays Keckwick and Mr Daily. This is due to Kipps not feeling confident enough to tell his story; therefore he tells an actor who plays Mr Kipps. Whilst he is telling the actor the audience become aware of his story through the actor. The Woman in Black is the final actress; she is used for effect as the actress has no lines. The main purpose of this actress is to create fear in the audience. The audience on view her when Mallatratt is creating terror. There are very thorough stage directions given throughout the play from the skip he takes out the bottle of brandy and a glass and pours himself a largish measure. This is an example of the detail Mallatratt uses in his stage directions. Therefore, any director could re-capture the same effects from his stage directions. Furthermore, his stage directions include lighting and sound effects the lights have dimmed to virtual darkness. This illustrates that Mallatratt uses light to give an illusion or effect of eeriness and emotions of fear to the audience. The director uses sound for effect as the sound fades down, changes apparent direction, swirls and fades as if carried on the mist. He use of sound fading, gives the illusion that the fog is dispersing. In conclusion, I feel Mallatratts play was a truly nerve-shredding experience. His use of lighting when the Woman in Black was on stage was classic. The experience made my skin crawl and my hair stand on end. The sound created an atmosphere of terror, the most effective scene was the sound used to recreate the ponys hooves. Mallatratt truly made me feel that a horse and carriage was entering the stage through the sounds effects. However, I feel he could have used more props to give more effect. An example includes a silhouette of the little boy. By using three actors Mallatratt has still captures Kipps story. I suggest that due to his precise and detailed stage directions any other director could be re-capture the essence of his play. Overall, I found the theatre experience far better than reading the play due to being part of the atmosphere.
Posted by Unknown at 12:35 PM
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Throughout history, there have been many factors that seem to have influenced the operations of Congress. Some of these factors have been the committee system, seniority, and political parties. These are only a few of the factors that actually have an influence on CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions of certain operations. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first factor that seems to have influenced the operations of Congress is the committee system. Congress has four different types of committees. The four committees are the joint committees, conference committees, standing committees, and select committees. The standing committee has an influence on Congress because of the fact that they have jurisdiction over all the bills of a given type. Select committees, however, influence congress because since they study and investigate rather than consider legislation, congress has to take into consideration of who is making sure that they have to make careful decisions with these operations with according to what is considered Ã¢â¬Å"right and wrongÃ¢â¬ . The joint committee has to give a full congressional overview to a complex subject to Congress and to the public. This influence congress because again it shows Congress that they are being watched and cannot make any decisions that might seem unfair or unfit. Both houses because they were created to make sure that both the House and the Senate agree on passing a bill, or for them to produce a version that would pass the Conference committee influences co... operations of Congress Essay -- essays research papers Throughout history, there have been many factors that seem to have influenced the operations of Congress. Some of these factors have been the committee system, seniority, and political parties. These are only a few of the factors that actually have an influence on CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions of certain operations. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first factor that seems to have influenced the operations of Congress is the committee system. Congress has four different types of committees. The four committees are the joint committees, conference committees, standing committees, and select committees. The standing committee has an influence on Congress because of the fact that they have jurisdiction over all the bills of a given type. Select committees, however, influence congress because since they study and investigate rather than consider legislation, congress has to take into consideration of who is making sure that they have to make careful decisions with these operations with according to what is considered Ã¢â¬Å"right and wrongÃ¢â¬ . The joint committee has to give a full congressional overview to a complex subject to Congress and to the public. This influence congress because again it shows Congress that they are being watched and cannot make any decisions that might seem unfair or unfit. Both houses because they were created to make sure that both the House and the Senate agree on passing a bill, or for them to produce a version that would pass the Conference committee influences co...
Posted by Unknown at 1:06 AM
Sunday, November 10, 2019
We cannot Say for certain whether science is a curse or a blessing. it is our use of science which would make science a curse or a Blessing . First let us see how man has used science for his good so that it has become a blessing for him. it is science that has provided modern man the life of ease, leisure and pleasure. It has brought within reach of the common man comforts and luxuries which were available in the past only to a privileged few.Science has invented marvelous machines. It has discovered energies which run these machines. The machines have taken drudgery out of work. Distance has been conquered. Modern means of transport and communication have made the word shrink in size. Men and things and news and views can go around the globe today with lightning speed. Man has already landed on the moon and a man-made satellite has just completed itÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage through the solar system.Our life has become healthier and longer. Modern hygiene, sanitation, medicine and surgery ar e conquering more and more physical and mental ills day by day. We now know and experience the joys of good health and longevity. Through the cinema and the video, the TV and the tape-reorder, science has worked wonders in the spheres of education and entertainment.Though we welcome these blessing of science, we have to consider the darker side of the picture also. Machines have led to unemployment. They have polluted water and atmosphere. Thy have caused noise pollution. Factories have led to slums where human beings live in squalor. Our moral and spiritual progress has failed to keep pace with our scientific progress. We have allowed science to master us instead of using it as our servant.Machines make us mechanical, deaden our sensibilities, stifle our creative talents, force mechanical regularity, uniformity and boredom upon us, increase our wants and desires, and tend to make us selfish, greedy and cruel. Geographical distance has, no doubt, vanished, but the gulf between the m inds and hearts of man has widened.Machines have given man leisure, but man misuses it to get cheap and vulgar entertainment which destroys his physical and mental health. Again, scienceÃ has put in our hands such fiendish weapons as the nuclear bomb, the guided missile and means of chemical and biological warfare. We are in danger of destroying ourselves with these monstrous means which, ironically, are our own creations. Rightly used science can bring heaven on earth. Wrongly used, it can trun this earth in to hell by destroying civilization.
Posted by Unknown at 7:04 PM
Friday, November 8, 2019
Decision Analysis in Strategic Management Introduction Organizational management requires rational decision-making processes. Particularly, this is more evident within the present competitive business environment. There are several methodologies applicable in the analysis of business decisions. Indicatively, the decisions play significant roles in the development of an organization (Hodgkinson Starbuck 2008, p. 56).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Decision Analysis in Strategic Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also influence the welfare of all stakeholders. The stakeholders might include the customers and internal employees. The management has the responsibility of making rational decisions. Presently, there is an increase in the participatory models. The highly liberalized society contributes to these notable transformations. There are organizational decisions that may relate to customers and employees. Alternatively, these decisions might appertain to the processes of organizational resource management. These decisions form critical domains in strategic management processes (Shapira 2002, p. 23). This report focuses on the analysis of the consequences of key organizational decisions. In achieving this objective, the report examines three important perspectives. These are applicable in decision-making processes. These include the modern, symbolic-interpretive and the postmodern perspectives. There is an eminent organizational decision relating to the expansion of major business operations. Modernist Analysis There are critical decisions involved in the expansion of organizational processes. An application of modernist principle in the analysis of these decisions is appropriate. Foremost, it is vital to examine the meaning of the modernist principle for decision-making. Notably, the modernist principle embeds in the concept of enlightenment. According to this theoretical argument, progress roots from principle empiric al knowledge (Monahan 2000, p. 23). Apart from this, an approach of rationality process remains appropriate. There are notable subdivisions of the general modernist principle. There is a general systems model. This model postulates that the explanations on empirical or social occurrence may base on systems. Particularly, this relates to the systems governed through regulations and frameworks. Apart from this, there is a socio-technical systems model. Principally, this model applies to the human behavior. Contingency theory is the last explanative model in the modernist concept.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Evidently, many managers apply this concept during crisis management situations. The concept stipulates that there is no any best methodology to organize (Bubnicki 2003, p. 34). However, according to this concept, the most applicable methodology depends on th e particular circumstance. The decisions made within organizations are critical. This is because these decisions might affect the cultural, political and technological elements. There might be other significant implications within different fields. An application of the modernist principle in the analysis of these implications is vital. A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to expand its operations might have significant implications on the general environment. Specifically, these might include both the internal and the external environments. To begin with, the organization must consider the availability of the appropriate resources. Resources may include financial, human resources and other pertinent enabling factors. The contingency theory may be applicable in evaluating the possibilities of engaging different available resources (Shapira 2002, p. 89). According to this principle, the organization does not need to struggle to generate unavailable resources. Rather, the possible developments mu st occur in relation to the relevant context. This principle assumes the application of planning and rational budgeting. Ideally, the consequences of these assumptions might be detrimental to the organization. For instance, it might lack the required resources to remunerate all its workers. Apart from this, it might also lack the capacity to sustain most of its business or organizational operations. The application of general systems model may depict important revelations. This is because the system relies on the respect for regulations (Shapira 2002, p. 90). According to this theoretical view, it is important to recognize the importance of drafting policies and frameworks. These must dictate organizational operations. Expansion processes might affect the external environments. Indicatively, there is an urge to observe the relevant policies applicable in the business environment. There are several important regulations that countercheck the operations within the business environment . These may relate to tax policies, employment regulations, market operations and other important aspects (Thomas 2012, p. 139). Government and other private agencies participate in the establishment of these policies. Additionally, they also monitor their implementation and compliance.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Decision Analysis in Strategic Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to note that there are regulations that relate to the internal and external operations. Internal operations are pertinent to organizational procedures and practices. On the other hand, the external regulations concern the issues of public policy and governance. It is important to comply with all the relevant external regulations. These frameworks might outline processes and guidelines appropriate for business investment and operations. The compliance helps to avoid future cases of deterrence and hindrances withi n business operations. It also ensures the legality of all business operations. Through observation of legal policies, the basic human entitlements and liberties must have consideration. In this respect, the fundamental liberties of the human resource or personnel within the organizations are valued. There are notable positive influences from this observation. These include positive perform and employee welfare. Strategic management encourages the formulation of transformational policies within organizations. These are important because they guide the operations of the organization. This is toward the effective attainment of collective organizational goals. Therefore, the application of the principle remains appropriate. Business organizations cannot operate within illegal contexts. This is applicable within the general environment and social structure. The legal environment requires maximum application and observation. The general systems theory applies to the observation of all th e internal and external guidelines. However, the comprehensive observation of this principle might also cause negative influences. The business organizations might face notable delimitations in the successful establishment of new ventures. Particularly, this may be due to regulatory restrictions on important factors. These might include restrictions on resource allocation, extent of business operations and employee engagement (Monahan 2000, p. 73). Business organizations depict tendencies to avoid adherence to stringent regulations. Therefore, the consequences of observation of these policies bear both negative and constructive influences. The socio-technical systems explanative model is applicable in the analysis of this decision. The explanative model stipulates the significance of observing human behavior.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An adequate comprehension of human behavior is important in developing rational decisions. This is because the consequences of these decisions mostly affect human beings. For instance, the employees are internal stakeholders that are likely to gain or suffer from the consequences (Bubnicki 2003, p. 60). Other external stakeholders must also realize full engagement in these decision processes. Observably, no business organizations can operate without regarding the requirements of all its stakeholders. This concept is applicable both to the internal and external stakeholders. The organization must consider the engagement of the behavior and feelings of stakeholders. Principally, this applies to the establishment and development of new operations. This process is important in several ways. The process enables the successful assessment of the competency of the workers to dedicate their strengths and capacities. This is appropriate for the operation and success of the new business ventur e. Human beings form critical components of the environment. This applies both to the social and business conditions. Therefore, there is relative significance in the comprehension and analysis of their behavior. The basic principle is that human behaviors have significant influences on the success of basic organizational decisions (Shapira 2002, p. 97). Therefore, the principle remains appropriate in the analysis of the consequences of these decisions. The modernist explanative model is important for the analysis of the consequences of the decisions to expand business organizations. The expansion processes within business organizations involve the integration of diverse cultures. Evidently, multicultural factors have significant influences in the success of business operations. In order to succeed, the application of socio-technical systems theory remains appropriate. Analytically, this process relates to the understanding and manipulation of basic cultural factors. This is because they have considerable influences on the organizational operations. Positive organizational culture is pertinent to the success of most organizations. The theory reiterates the importance of engaging human behavior. Its application also results into the development of a positive workforce. The workforce depicts the competency to operate effectively within multicultural environments. Harmonizing multicultural disparities remain as a critical tool for success. However, this initiative requires adequate time and consideration. This observation enables the business organization to develop a positive workforce. Human behavior has an important contribution in the development of positive work culture (Monahan 2000, p. 101). Therefore, the socio-technical systems may be best applicable in the analysis. It is noteworthy to indicate the wide diversities of components within the general environment. It encompasses a great deal of factors that have the capacity to influence basic organizationa l processes. The contingency model is most appropriate within emergencies. It is appropriate for crisis management. The expected consequences may not be positive or compliant with organizational best practices and policies. This is because the critical decisions occur haphazardly. There is an eminent lack of consultation. Consequently, the important stakeholders are not involved in major decisions. Therefore, an element of partiality and assumption of important factors might emanate. This is usually observable at the end of the implementation process. For instance, the organization might discover that it lacks the adequate personnel or finances to steer its new ventures. This is more likely to cause failures and disagreements within the relevant teams. Therefore, there are only two theories of the modernist approach that may be applicable in the analysis of this situation (Bubnicki 2003, p. 84). These include the general systems and the socio-technical theories. Their application re sults into positive results. The consideration of human behavior and legal frameworks is important in any decision process. This includes the decision-making processes that might have remarkable impacts on the external or internal environments. However, the applicability of contingency model in decision processes that occur in emergencies remains important. This is because the management within any organization is already prepared to handle the negative consequences. Generally, the modernist concept reiterates the significance of rationality (Thomas 2012, p. 139). The subjective indulgence of this principle in management and decision making processes have both beneficial and negative consequences. It is upon the decision makers to adopt the most appropriate system in decision approaches. This observation defines the basic principle of strategic management. Organizations must have the adequate preparations to deal with the consequences of their decisions. Symbolic-interpretive Critiq ue The modernist perspective is not the sole approach to decision making. The process has observable limitations within diverse contexts. These shortcomings are avoidable through the application of other theoretical models (Green Li 2011, p. 1665). A symbolic interpretive perspective provides a typical alternative. The modernist explanative model relies singularly on the idea of empiricism. This involves the application of logical scientific processes in the evaluation of human factors. The factors might include a variety of elements such as intrinsic and extrinsic behaviors. Analytically, there are potential doubts concerning this approach. Foremost, individuals lack the audacity to analyze and interpret the cultures and behavior through their personal cultural lens. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to expand might stir different reactions amongst employees (Jacobs 2012, p. 4). However, the management lacks the capacity to empirically investigate and analyze these feelings. In th is context, it is obvious that the application of the modernist systems is vain. The basic reason for the interpretation of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views might be misconstruing. The system might cause subjective ruling and dictatorship on individuals. Therefore, in many situations, decisions based on the modernist system have the potential of causing irrational consequences (Powell 2004, p. 45). Concerning the expansion decision of the organization, the symbolic Ã¢â¬âinterpretive perspective is best applicable. Particularly, this regards to the analysis of potential consequences of general organizational decisions. This is because there are factors that exist in solitary form within the general environment. Ideally, there is no any solitary right idea. This is because notable factors within the environment are a makeup of the social interactions of individual characteristics and behavior. The modernist principle forces individuals and organizations to have positive convictions on o ne particular element or process. Although it might illuminate an element of freedom, the fundamental expressive human liberties remain narrowed. This is not appropriate for effective development and performance of organizations. An analysis of the renowned social construction theory indicates potential negative implications of the modernist approach to decision-making processes (Jacobs 2012, p. 15). There are notable social realities and influences within the general environment. This might also be applicable within the business situations. The interrelation of these factors leads to the development of common social patterns within the environment. Individual behaviors influence the general societal practices and beliefs. The modernist principle may be applicable in imposing individually derived decisions and principles on others. However, there are other viable alternatives. These include the use of multiple interpretations. The organization must endeavour to comprehend how the pa rticular natives influence their domains (Powell 2004, p. 78). This applies to all organizational members. This means that the management must focus on providing opportunities for members to elucidate their views on important decisions. In particular, the views must appertain to the indicated decision of increasing or expanding the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operational base. The institutional theories reiterate the importance of considering a positive approach towards successful individual sociological understanding. Generally, the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to expand its processes and operations must base on realities. In this context, the application of symbols is preferable (Jacobs 2012, p. 24). This is relative to the use of the modernist approach in decision-making processes. Through the observation of symbols, the stakeholders affected by the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to expand may learn several lessons. For instance, they might have the capacity to assess the expected be nefits or disadvantages associated. Particularly, this relates to the impacts allied to the decision-making and change processes within their organizations. It is important for the general humanity to gain an adequate comprehension of how social processes are appropriate (Green Li 2011, p. 1696). Especially, this applies to the derivation of basic meanings and implications on processes. Therefore, the symbolic-interpretive perspective remains more appropriate for rational decision processes within organizations. Postmodern Critique A Postmodern perspective might be applicable in the analysis of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to expand. Evidently, this approach heavily relies on the concept of philosophical comprehension. According to the perspective, a mere simplification process is not appropriate for any decision process (Feldman 2000, p. 45). It is important to put philosophical inquests in the analysis of the general social or cultural factors. This is appropriate for some o f the factors that have the capacity to influence the decision process. Certain environmental factors might cause significant influences on decision processes. These include both the internal and outdoor environmental factors. These conditions range from the business, regulatory, human and cultural influences. As indicated in the postmodern perspective, organizations must not worry about environmental situations. This is because of many important reasons. For instance, the philosophical fundamentals within the model indicate that the fixed external realities never exist. Instead, most of the perceived factors remain as images or reflections that dictate the manner of performing particular duties. The general implication is that business organizations must not focus on less intricate external factors that influence their operations. Instead, much concern is required for the more tangible and eminent internal organizational influences or factors (Scherer Palazzo 2011, p. 920). This i s because they depict momentous manipulations on the overall business processes. The sociological observations on issues relating to cultures and individual behavior are all in vain. This is because they are less likely to influence the outcomes of most critical decisions. The social construction is more disjointed. In addition, it holds limited value and influence on organizational processes. Therefore, the decisions to expand operations are more likely to enable the organization to succeed and attain more transformative results. However, the theory denotes the importance of observing internal tangible factors. This is applicable within all the decision-making mechanisms. The notable external factors have negligible influences on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to perform (Levy 2010, p.380). Consequently, the belief on empirical knowledge as indicated within the modernist principle does not apply. The postmodern perspective provides for a unique perception on the concept of know ledge. The application of knowledge might not be helpful in the decision making process. Additionally, this might also relate to the analysis of the outcomes of these decisions within organizations. The concept is applicable to both the business and non-profit organizations within different environmental conditions. The application of knowledge in these processes may lead to diverse negative implications. For example, it causes the creation and development of interest groups. These are likely to lead organizations to stray conditions. Apart from this, it may also cause the neglect of other categories of personalities. This causes disparities and hinders collective achievement of organizational goals (Levy 2010, p.386). Decisions that depend on the premise of knowledge and empiricism cause partial marginalization of certain groups of personalities. Knowledge must not bear an element of exclusion of particular groups. Rather, it must involve a collective inclusion. This concept exists in the definition of knowledge itself. Knowledge is a process that entails the domestic agreement about certain identifiable realties within the general community. Therefore, this explanation process reiterates the significance of collective participation and consultation in decision-making initiatives. This is because knowledge is a communally owned and shared concept. Power must derive from meanings and general familiarity. Therefore, it is impossible to underestimate the significance of individual or group experiences in the development of rational decisions (Scherer Palazzo 2011, p. 929). The concept emphasizes on the need to base decision initiatives on learning processes. This is because of the importance of familiarity and experience on knowledge. The role of cultures and discursive processes in enhancing familiarity during decision processes remain critical. Indeed, the postmodern perspective provides a typical and practical application in the analysis of the outcomes of a decision. Conclusion Decision-making is a critical initiative in strategic managment. Presently, organizations recognize the need to adopt transformative decision processes. This explains the need to evaluate the different theories applicable in decision-making. The report examines critical elements within three basic theoretical models. These include the modernist, postmodern and symbolic-interpretive theoretical models. All of these explanative models have significant influences on organizational decisions. Generally, environmental factors have remarkable influences on the expansion of business operations. These influences require analysis using the various theoretical models. List of References Bubnicki, Z 2003, Analysis and decision making in uncertain systems, Springer, London. Feldman, M 2000, American legal thought from premodernism to postmodernism: an intellectual voyage, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY. Green E Li, Y 2011, Rhetorical Institutionalism: Language, Agency, and Structure in Institutional Theory since Alvesson 1993, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 48, no. 7, pp.1662Ã¢â¬â1697. Hodgkinson, P Starbuck, H 2008, The Oxford handbook of organizational decision making, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Jacobs, K 2012, Making Sense of Social Practice: Theoretical Pluralism in Public Sector Accounting Research, Financial Accountability Management, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1Ã¢â¬â25. Levy, Y 2010, The Essence of the Ã¢â¬Å"Market Army,Ã¢â¬ Public Administration Review, vol. 70 no. 3, pp. 378Ã¢â¬â389. Monahan, E 2000, Management decision making: spreadsheet modeling, analysis, and application, Cambridge Univ. Pr., Cambridge. Powell, A 2004, A rhetoric of symbolic identity: an analysis of Spike Lees X and Bamboozled, U.P. of America, Dallas. Scherer, G Palazzo, G 2011, The New Political Role of Business in a Globalized World: A Review of a New Perspective on CSR and its Implications for the Firm, Governance, and Democracy, Journal of Man agement Studies, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 899Ã¢â¬â931. Shapira, B 2002, Organizational decision making, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. Thomas, L 2012, Public Policy and Mass Media: The Interplay of Mass Communication and Political Decision Making Ã¢â¬â Edited by Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten and Katrin Voltmer, Political Studies Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.139.
Posted by Unknown at 1:02 PM
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Organizational Ethics Essays - Ethics, Business Ethics, Free Essays Organizational Ethics ETH/316 Organizational Ethics The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings from the research conducted on the U. S. Postal Service. This paper will discuss the ethical principles and how they can address organizational issues as well as the roles that external social pressure have in influencing ethics, how these issues might be relevant to organizational and personal decisions, and lastly discuss the relationship is between legal and ethical issues of the USPS. How ethical principles can address organizational issues Ethical principles are applied to all type of organization and the ethical obligations extend to all members of an organization which can include the customers, employee, and employer that work for the U.S. Postal Service which is also part of the federal government. Some of the ethical issues that can come up are mail being delivered on a timely basis, hiring and firing of a worker and in some cases the promotions. Ethical principles can address organizational issues because they can help the Postmaster over their location handle an issue in the best ethical way possible. Roles of External Social Pressures There are some issues, but the main issues are the stealing of mail. Having and keeping a positive image is very important for an organization to survive. All employees of the U.S. Postal Service are expected to follow a certain code of ethics and also the rules that are governed by the laws under the Postal Reform (USPS 2014). Social pressure has a major influence on the Postal Service considering the fact that they provide a service to every business and residence in the US and outside of the US. They have one of the largest customer bases in the world and to maintain a positive image to the public the employees personal decision must follow the organizations code of ethics. External social pressures the need to look successful has a lot of influence on organizational ethical decisions. How the issues Relevant to Organizational and Personal Decision Some of the most common principles that are relevant to organizational and personal decisions are personal and social benefits. The security and safety of the mail can be an ethical issue, the number of times that each piece of mail changes hands can provide plenty of potential opportunities for damage or stolen mail to occur. These confidential documents can contain personal information that could lead to identity theft when they are allowed to fall in the wrong hands. I have heard of many stories where the postal worker has stolen mail that contained credit cards, money that was going to a charity to help sick kids or tossed it so that they didnt have to deliver so much. These were personal decision that the employee made that not only had consequences to the employee but also to the post office. According to the United States Postal Service, the Postal Service demands an unwavering commitment to strong ethical values and principled decision making from all of it employees. All pos t employees are required to place loyalty to the Constitution, the laws and ethical principles above private gain (USPS, 2014). Relationship between Legal and Ethical Issues Legal and ethical issues both deal with issues within a company or organization and every company has legal and ethical responsibilities when the issues cross the law. The law might not always address ethical issues that happen within all organization because all unethical behavior is not illegal. The situation with the postal worker that stole the money from the charity became a legal issue because it was report to the postal inspector by the charity. The inspector set it up to where they were able to catch the worker with the stolen stuff. What that worker did was not only unethical but also illegal, that worker was giving jail time and also has to pay all the money that was missing back and will not allow the working any federal jobs in the future. That worker was made out as an example to the other workers so that they know what consequence will happen if they stole what did not belong to them. Conclusion In our society today, there are many unethical decisions made for ones own selfishness and greed. It
Posted by Unknown at 7:01 AM
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Temple of Zeus at Akragas, Agrigento, Sicily 500-460 B.C - Essay Example In Agrigento, Sicily, one of the most ancient architectural designs stands there even today, attracting thousands of people from across the globe. Historically, the town is famous for its splendid assortment of more than seven Greek temples that dates back to the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Standing on the southern part of the city of Agrigento, these temples provide a classic example of a historical study about ancient architectural designs, and how they influences modern day architecture (Wilson 7). Many historians believe that the Greek colonialists are the ones who built the city of Akragas in 580 BC. These colonialists had travelled from far, precisely from Rhodes and settled in Sicily. Life during the colonial times was not any easy, as tyranny, persecutions and slavery took the orders of the day. However, these periods happened and democracy settled in slowly and the city dwellers, about 200,000 of them in the fifth century BC, embarked on a journey of developing their city. High-quality wine, olives, and horses decorated the beautiful city, and later on the most famous and beautiful temples stood elected. However, something astonishing happened in 406 BC. The Carthaginians invaded Akragas just barely eight months after the construction of the temples, and mutilated the temples. The Carthaginians ruled the city until 340 BC when Timoleon engaged the Carthage in war and finally defeated them. However, it is important to note that the city had lost its glory and magnificent scene, a scene that stands unrecovered even up to today. The change o one empire to another has not helped in the rebuilding of the temples. However, these temples still have a historical significance to modern day historians and architectural designers (Paton 74-94). In Italy, historians agree that the Olympian Zeus Temple is the prevalent Doric temple ever built and it has some historical significance. However, it is paramount to note that due to various reasons, the construction of these temple never ended. In fact, today, the temple of Zeus lies in ruins as the people responsible for its construction did not do much to compete it. Standing in the Valle dei Templi, other famous temples surround the temple of Zeus thus giving the later a sheer significance. Nonetheless, it is imperative to note that nobody recorded the exact history this temple, and therefore it is quite unclear. This does not however imply that there are no absolute facts about the temple of Zeus. In fact, one of its significance is the commemoration of war pitting Syracuse and Carthaginians (Battle of Himera 480 BC). As earlier noted the Carthaginians had taken control of the city and imposed their rule. Some historians such as Diodorus Siculus point out that the Carthaginians are the ones who built the temple by using slaves. Here, the slaves were mainly the captured enemies parading as soldiers but were now defeated and taken into captivity where they subjected them into hard work and labo r (Wilson 48-61). The ancient literature does not say much about the temple of Zeus although many historians mention it in their writings. For example, Polybius, one of the Greek historians records in a memo that although the other temples surrounding the temple of Zeus looked complete and beautiful unlike the temple of Zeus, the later was completely odd in terms of appearance, design and dimensions. He goes on to say
Posted by Unknown at 11:59 PM
Friday, November 1, 2019
Company on green event planning in UAE - Thesis Example This approach helps the businesses in achieving their long terms goals and objectives by benefiting people and protecting environment. The paper will highlight the sustainable development project of Eco Event Planner Company in UAE. The company deals in planning different events in eco friendly ways. Organizing green events has become a new trend in present time. People are very much concerned about environmental pollution and damages. For this reason the green event planning companies are developing a lot. According to the authors, Cherian & Jacob, the awareness of various environmental problems is increasing day by day. People have become very much concerned about different environmental issue for protecting the environment from damages. For this reason the tastes and preferences of the customers have changed a lot. They are focusing more on eco friendly products and services. A positive attitude has been observed among the customers regarding green lifestyle. People are seriously trying to reduce negative impacts on environment which are caused by their different activities and functions. The author stated that companies need to consider these issues for holding its position in competitive market. For this reason company of UAE requires to develop eco friendly business process for benefiting the society and attracting maximum number of customers (Cherian & Jacob, 2012). By following the views of authors Moise and Macovei, for organizing, designing, planning and promoting any event a company requires thinking about the impact on the event on people and on the environment. Ecological balance should be taken into consideration for organizing an event. This helps the company in developing an event which will not cause any damage to the environment. By organizing green events the companies can show off their concerns towards the benefits of society. In UAE many companies are developing which cause many negative impacts
Posted by Unknown at 5:35 PM
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
New Venture Proposition - Individual work - Essay Example The selected name of the restaurant will be Ã¢â¬Å"Rene sense Dinner theatreÃ¢â¬ . The new theatre restaurant named Ã¢â¬Å"Rene sense Dinner theatreÃ¢â¬ is offering the area of entertainment and fine dining concept with different, tasty and innovative food recipes. While considering the food in the restaurant, the menu includes cuisine of America, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and the Middle East. The wide range of cuisines is also a new and different idea in the market. Moreover, when it comes to services presenting good food in a friendly environment will be a positive and strong point for the restaurant. The representation of different cultures and music within a colourful environment, which adds an entertainment factor with dinner, will amaze the customers. Customers will be allowed to choose any theme for their table and then the service for that table will be according to that theme. It will delight the customers and the experience of extreme fun and uniqueness will attract and grab the concentration of the customers towards one restaurant that is providing all entertainment activities and food at one place (Rainsford, 2000). The restaurant industry is a diverse business the reason is that there are various cuisines and cultures that restaurants offer and follow according to the needs and demands of the customers. There are various restaurants that are offering delicious and different food items. Mostly focus on the services and food quality. People around the globe like fast food items a lot, and it is a part of their daily food intake. It is the reason due to which there is majority of fast restaurants in the industry. However, for special occasions and different taste people prefer to experience uniqueness in food items within a good environment. Although there is majority of restaurants, there is no such
Posted by Unknown at 5:12 PM
Monday, October 28, 2019
Nucor Corporation Case Essay Summary: For more than 20 years the Nucor Corporation has been one of the leading manufacturers of steel and steel related products in the world. With their technology advancement, low debt ratio, decentralized type of organization and many more, this company still thrives to achieve better goals in their company. Aside from the positive views of the company, it also faced problems like bankruptcy. (te pakidagdagan n lng) History: Nucor traced its origins to auto manufacturer Ransom E. Olds, who founded Oldsmobile, and later, Reo Motor Cars. Through a series of transactions, the company eventually became the Nuclear Corporation of America, a company involved in the nuclear instrument and electronics business. In 1972, the firm changed its name to Nucor Corporation. By 1998, it had become AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s second-largest steel maker. Operations: Nucor related its diverse facilities in rural areas across the United States, establishing strong ties to its local communities and its work force. As a leading employer with the ability to pay top wages, it attracted hard-working, dedicated employees. These factors also allowed Nucor to select from among competing locales, siting its operations in states with tax structures that encouraged business growth and regulatory policies that favored the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to remaining union-free. By mid-2008, Nucor operated 53 facilities throughout the United States and one in Point Lisas, Trinidad. The company also maintained operations through wholly owned subsidiaries, Harris Steel and the David J. Joseph Company (DJJ). Strategy: NucorÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy focused on two major competencies: building steel manufacturing facilities economically and operating them productively. Organization Structure: Compared to the typical Fortune 500 company with 10 or more management layers, NucorÃ¢â¬â¢s Structure was decentralized, with only the four managementÃ layers illustrated below: Chairman / Vice Chairman / President Vice President / Plant General Manager Department Manager Supervisor Human Resource Policies: Employee relations at Nucor were based on four principles: 1. Management is obligated to manage Nucor in such a way that employee will have the opportunity to earn according to their productivity. 2. Employees should feel confident that if they do their jobs properly, they will have a job tomorrow. 3. Employees have the right to be treated fairly. 4. Employees must have an avenue of appeal when they believe they are being treated unfairly. Compensation: Nucor provided employees with a performance-related compensation system. All employees were covered under one of four compensation plan, each featuring incentives for meeting specific goals and targets. 1. Production Incentive Plan * employees directly involved in manufacturing were paid weekly bonuses based on actual output in relation to anticipated production tonnages produced. The bonuses were paid only for work that met the quality standards and were pegged to work group, rather than individual output. 2. Department Manager Incentive Plan * Department managers earned an annual incentive bonus based on the performance of the entire plan to which they belonged. The targeted performance criterion here was return on assets. 3. Non-Production and Non-Department Manager Incentive Plan * All employees not in the Production Incentive Plan or Department Manager Incentive Plan Ã¢â¬â including accountants, engineers, secretaries, clerks, and receptionists Ã¢â¬â received a bonus based primarily on each plantÃ¢â¬â¢s return on assets. It could total over 25% of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s base salary. 4. Senior Officers Incentive Plan * Included all corporate executives and plant general managers. A portion of pre-tax earnings was placed into a pool that was divided among the officers. If Nucor did well, the officersÃ¢â¬â¢ bonuses, in the form of stock (about 60%) and cash (about 40%), could amount to several times their base salaries. If Nucor did poorly, an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation was only base salary and, therefore, significantly below the average pay for this level of responsibility. Information Systems: Benefits: Nucor took an egalitarian approach toward employee benefits. NucorÃ¢â¬â¢s benefit program also attested to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to education. Technology: Nucor did not have a formal RD department, a corporate engineering group, or a chief technology officer. Instead, it relied on equipment suppliers and other companies to do the RD, and they adopted the technological advancements they developed Ã¢â¬â whether in steel or iron making, or in fabrication. Teams composed of mangers, engineers, and machine operators decided what technology to adopt. Future: The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest challenge (in the future) is to continue to grow the company at 15 Ã¢â¬â 20% per year, and to keep earnings parallel with its growth. Analysis: Nucor Corporation became one of the top corporations in the steel industry because of their handwork and technology innovation. This company also sees and takes care of its employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, which in return gives themÃ a quality service in their work. Conclusion: Nucor, even though we can see it as a successful, almost perfect company, still faces problems like other businesses in the industry. Problem: The company has lost one-third to one-half of its market value when the stock reached its peak value (mid-2008), and has not recovered as of 2012. Recommendation: We can recommend change in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s technology, like getting more advance equipments in making steel and steel-related products. Or the company could make a merger to other company to utilize its resources to its maximum while keeping cost low.
Posted by Unknown at 2:42 PM
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Proposal for International Foods at the University Dining Services Pedro Cabrera came to State University from Puerto Rico. He decided to be an exchange student at State because he was interested in experiencing life in the United States, and because he was excited about the excellent veterinarian program offered at State. While he loves attending college and living in the United States, there are some things that he would like to change, or rather introduce to State University. Pedro admitted that he feels homesick at times, a feeling not uncommon to new freshmen. He confessed that one of the most important things that he misses about his home is his mother's home cooking. Pedro confessed that the food that the State University dining service provides, does not offer a very wide selection of international food, especially none that are specific to Puerto Rico. Therefore, Pedro would like to propose to the State University dining service that a wider variety of international be incorporated into the daily dining menus. Comfort for international stud ents, variety and accessibility for all students, and a positive aspect of State University are some of the reasons why the introduction of international foods would be beneficial in the residence hall dining services. Pedro shyly admitted before that he feels homesick at times for foods that he eats in Puerto Rico. Like many other students, international or not, food can be a great comfort when students feel homesick. Many students who are not international students can at least relate to the kinds of foods that are found at the dinning services, even if they are not exactly the same as a home cooked meal. For international students, however, the food served at the dining ser... ...idence hall dining services. On an everyday basis, State University tries to help students adjust to college life in one way or another. The dining service would be taking a large step towards assisting international students in this matter. Not only this, the dining service would join in the campaign to educate students in something new, each and everyday, by exposing all students to new international foods. Plus, at the same time, they would be saving all students a great deal of time and money, and not to mention, keeping them excited about eating in the dining services on a daily basis! The proposed way of incorporating international foods to dining service is both simple and efficient. The introduction of new and different international foods to residence hall dining services would benefit everyone who has the pleasure of dining at Iowa State University.
Posted by Unknown at 12:15 PM
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The cost of health care has become an progressively outstanding issue in recent old ages. In the United States every bit good as in many European states, wellness related costs have risen significantly and have progressively constituted a larger proportion of GDP.[ 1 ]The rapid addition in health care costs has threatened to force healthcare systems in certain states to the fiscal threshold. Citizens in states with privatized systems like the United States Ã¢â¬Ë have seen their premiums rise at rates higher than rising prices with many people going unable to afford even basic wellness insurance. In states with cosmopolitan wellness attention, costs have besides risen with much of the load being passed on to occupants in the signifier of higher revenue enhancements.[ 2 ]The recent health care argument in the United States underscores the importance of this issue. Although there was dissension as to how the job of unaffordable health care should be solved, there was a general consens us that something had to be done to lower wellness attention costs. The demand to drastically cut down health care costs and increase efficiency has led to much research and argument. Many inefficiencies exist within the system but for the intents of this paper, the chief focal point will be on over use of wellness attention services and more specifically ambulatory attention. Regardless of the type of insurance, the presence of the 3rd party remunerator has the possible to bring on over use of wellness attention services. If patients are non straight exposed to the costs of their ingestion, there is considerable inducement for them to take advantage of the system and to devour at a higher rate than they would hold otherwise. This extra ingestion is the consequence of a general phenomenon called moral jeopardy. Moral jeopardy exists when one party Ã¢â¬Ës insularity from hazard causes it to act in mode that is inconsistent with how it would hold behaved had it been exposed to that hazard.[ 3 ]In order to battle extra ingestion and fringy use of ambu latory services, the mechanism of cost sharing through copayments is frequently used. Copayments are either a level fee or per centum of entire monetary value which the user must pay upon ingestion of services. The principle behind copayments is as follows: insurance users are by and large desensitized to the cost of their services because they incur no disbursals at the point of ingestion. This desensitisation leads to an extra ingestion of services. By doing the user wage a part of the cost at the point of ingestion, one forces the user to go sensitive to the costs of his/her ingestion therefore cut downing his/her leaning to demand and consume unneeded services.[ 4 ]The usage of copayments is rather important because by cut downing the over use of ambulatory attention, one efficaciously reduces the load born by taxpayers and premium remunerators. Cost sharing through copayments has proven effectual at cut downing over use in many cases but is its effectivity the same in all systems? Furthermore, do the economic demographics of the user population have any consequence on the efficaciousness of user payments in cut downing the use of ambulatory attention? A expression at the effects of copayments in the Medicaid system in the U.S. versus in the German Universal Healthcare system will supply great penetration into this issue. Overview of Systemic Differences Both health care and wellness insurance in the United States are provided chiefly by the private sector. The cost of health care constitutes a important part of national and single income with the United States taking the universe in money spent per individual on health care. Although the United States spends a considerable proportion of its income on health care, approximately 11 per centum of its citizens remain uninsured with an estimated 21 per centum holding less than equal coverage. The logical thinking of those who remain uninsured varies from circumstance to circumstance. Some people choose non to inscribe in an insurance program because they do non experience like they have considerable wellness hazards and experience that their income could be put to better usage. Others, who have fallen victim to fiscal strain, merely do non hold the resources to afford equal insurance or any insurance at all. The people in the latter class frequently have incomes that are merely above the threshold that would measure up them for governmental assistance, but for those who live below what has been established as the poorness line, assorted plans exist to help with wellness insurance.[ 5 ] One of the primary plans which the U.S. uses to supply wellness insurance to the hapless is the Medicaid system. Medicaid was founded in 1965 under the Social Security Act. The Medicaid plan is jointly funded by the federal and province authoritiess. Each province names its ain Medicaid plan and has the duty of puting its eligibility guidelines while the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services sets general parametric quantities with respects to support and service bringing. Poverty is seen as the chief requirement for Medicaid eligibility, but low income entirely does non measure up an person for Medicaid coverage. In fact, a considerable part of hapless person in the United States do non measure up for Medicaid. In order to measure up for Medicaid, an single must fall into either one of the Mandatory Medicaid eligibility groups or into what is defined as a flatly destitute group. The people who fall into these classs range from Supplementary Security Income receivers to medically destitute individuals with inordinate medical costs. For the intents of this paper the most of import thing to maintain in head is that the bulk of Medicaid users fall below the poorness line.[ 6 ] The universalized German health care system contrasts greatly with the privatized American system. 88 per centum of Germans are covered under their Statutory Health Insurance Plan with the other 12 per centum choosing for the private sector. The national health care program is compulsory for all salaried employees, and merely a few select groups have the option of buying premium private insurance. Premiums are set by Germany Ã¢â¬Ës Public Ministry of Health to degrees that are determined to be economically feasible. Premiums do non take into history the wellness position of persons but alternatively are based on a per centum of wage. Because the cosmopolitan system covers the bulk of German citizens, the demographics of its users differ greatly from those of the Medicaid system. More specifically, the mean income of the typical German user is significantly higher than that of the norm Medicaid user.[ 7 ]Comparison of Two Natural ExperimentsIn order to compare the comparative effect ivity of copayments in the two systems, this paper will see informations from two natural experiments. One survey by Helms, Newhouse, and Phelps entitled Ã¢â¬Å" Copayments and the Demand for Healthcare: The California Medicaid Experience, Ã¢â¬ examines the consequence of the debut of copayments on Medicaid users in California. The other survey entitled Ã¢â¬Å" Copayments in the German Healthcare System: Does it Work? , Ã¢â¬ examines the effects of the debut of a 10 Euro copayment for the first physician visit of each one-fourth in Germany. Because of lifting wellness attention outgos, in 2004, the German authorities introduced a copayment for all those covered by Statutory Health Insurance. Those covered by private insurance programs where exempted from the copayment and therefore within the model of this experiment service as a natural control. The copayment was 10 Euros and was to be paid upon the first physicians visit of each one-fourth. Certain groups were to be exempted including those with chronic conditions and patients with well low incomes. The information collected in the survey covers 2000-2003 and 2005-2006 Ã¢â¬â the periods before and after the intercession. Harmonizing to the Data collected in the Study, the figure of doctors visits for non exempt SHI members dropped from 2.75 in 2003 to 2.5 in 2004. That figure increased to 2.6 in 2005 before falling back to 2.5 in 2006. Interestingly PHI members followed a similar tendency during this period with mean visits falling from 2.25 in 2003 to 2 in 2004 so lifting back up to 2.5 in 2005 before falling back to 2 in 2006.[ 8 ]The fluctuation in these Numberss suggests that while the copayment may hold had an initial consequence, it did small to cut down use of ambulatory services in the long term. A similar natural experiment took topographic point in California in 1972. In order to cut down use of ambulatory services, Medicaid patients were asked to pay a little out of pocket fee for certain out of infirmary services. A group of patients was exempted to function as a control. Data was collected for six quarters from July 1971 to December 1972. The sample includes 400,662 persons from the San Francisco, Tulare, and Ventura Counties. The demographics of the sample differed greatly from the general population with 100 per centum the participants being low income persons. From January 1, 1972 to the terminal of the experiment, the Californian authorities imposed a copayment of 26 per centum on the sample population. The copayment was $ 1 for the first 2 visits of each month with subsequent services being offered for free. In the copayment group, the mean figure of doctors visits per one-fourth decreased from.6772 before the imposed copayments to.6494 stand foring a 4.1 per centum lessening in use. For the control group the figure of visits dropped from.7316 to.7274. Using complex methodological analysis, the Numberss where adjusted to account for demographical and behavioural differences between the experimental and control group. After this accommodation, it was found that the existent consequence of the 1 dollar copayment was a important 8 per centum decrease in physicians visits.[ 9 ]DiscussionThe findings of these two experiments are important. While the debut of the copayment in the German system seemed to hold the initial consequence of cut downing use, in the long tally it proved futile. On the other manus cost sharing seemed to hold rather a important consequence in the Medicaid system in California. There are assorted grounds for this statistical disparity. One may be the differences in fringy public-service corporation that exist between the two populations. The Californian experiment monitored a public assistance population. Because all of the to pics were of low income the fringy public-service corporation of one dollar was rather high. Given this fact, it is rather likely that even a little sum of money played a important function in changing their behaviour. In contrast, the mean member of the German population was comparatively good off. The bulk had the agencies to take attention of life Ã¢â¬Ës basic necessities. The fringy public-service corporation of their money was well less than those of the Medicaid users. This is likely why the infliction of copayments had really small permanent consequence on the use of ambulatory services. It is besides likely that other factors including assorted regional, societal, and cultural differences, may hold contributed to the disparity, but more research is required to asses the effects of these variables.DecisionGiven the consequences of the two experiments, it appears that the socioeconomic demographics of an insured population play a important function in the effectivity of user payments at cut downing over use of ambulatory services. Cost sharing mechanisms are rather effectual at cut downing over use in poorer populations, but loose their effectivity with more flush insured populations. While it is rather clear that a important relationship exists between the efficaciousness of cost sharing mechanisms and the income degree of insured populations more research is needed to find the full extent of this relationship.
Posted by Unknown at 7:20 PM